The Inconsistent Usage of the Terms “Extremism” and “Terrorism” Around the Christchurch Mosque Attacks

Authors: Vandenberg, H. & Hoverd, W.
Published in National Security Journal, 12 June 2020

36 Andrew Hampton. (2019). GCSB Statement on the Christchurch Terrorist Attacks. Government Communications Security Bureau. Available at

37 Government Communications Security Bureau. (n.d.). GCSB’s Role in Counterterrorism. Available at

38 Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet. (2020) Countering terrorism and violent extremism national strategy overview. Available at

39 Ibid., p. 4.

40 Ibid., p.4.

41 “UK government abandons attempts to define ‘extremism’ in law,” Scottish Legal News, 8 April 2019. Available at