The Inconsistent Usage of the Terms “Extremism” and “Terrorism” Around the Christchurch Mosque Attacks

Authors: Vandenberg, H. & Hoverd, W.
Published in National Security Journal, 12 June 2020

14 Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. (2016). National Security System Handbook. Available at P. 14.

15 Terrorism Suppression Act 2002. (2019). Available at , p.14.

16 Ibid., p.14.

17 Ibid., p.14.

18 Ibid., 128.

19 New Zealand Security Intelligence Service. (2017). Counter Terrorism. Available at

20 William Hoverd. (2017). Introduction. In W. Hoverd, N. Nelson, & C. Bradley (Eds.) New Zealand National Security: Challenges, Trends and Issues. Auckland: Massey University Press P. 32.

21 Combined Threat Assessment Group. Available at

22 Jacinda Ardern. (2018). Joint Statement by the Hon Malcolm Turnbull and Rt Hon Jacinda Ardern. Available at

23 Ministry of Defence. (2018). Strategic Defence Policy Statement 2018. Available at

24 Jacinda Ardern. (2019b). Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern’s House Statement on Christchurch mosques terror attack. Available at

25 Winston Peters. (2019). Winston Peters Speech to Commemorate the Christchurch Mosque Attacks. Available at

26 Jacinda Arden. (2019c). Jacinda Ardern’s Christchurch Call Opening Statement. Available at

27 Jacinda Ardern. (2019a). New Zealand National Statement to United Nations General Assembly 2019. Available at

28 Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2019). Christchurch Call. Available at

29 New Zealand Police. (2016). Advisory on Obligations to Suppress Terrorism Under the Terrorism Suppression Act 2002. Available at

30 Department of Internal Affairs. (2019). NZ Police Update Following the Christchurch Terrorist Attacks. Available at

31 New Zealand Police. (2020). Counterterrorism. Available at

32 Rebecca Kitteridge. (2019b). Speech: Opening Statement to the Intelligence and Security Committee. Available at

33 Ibid.

34 Rebecca Kitteridge. (2019a). NZSIS Welcomes Inquiry into the Christchurch Terrorist Attacks. New Zealand Security Intelligence Service. Available at

35 Rebecca Kitteridge. (2019c). Speech: Understanding Intelligence. Available at