Reframing New Zealand’s Biosecurity Conversation Post-Covid-19: An Argument for Integrating Interspecies Concerns

Author: McDonald, D. A.
Published in National Security Journal, 24 August 2020

79 Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, last reviewed 19 August 2014, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, last reviewed 6 February 2017,

80 New Zealand is a signatory to the Convention on the Conservation on Migratory Species of Wild Animals, also known as the ‘Bonn Convention’. Retrieved from

81 New Zealand Influenza Pandemic Plan: A Framework for Action (Wellington: Ministry of Health, 2017). Retrieved from­demic-plan-framework-action-2nd-edn-aug17.pdf.

82 Ted Regencia, “600,000 Dead as Coronavirus Rebounds Around the World: Live”, Aljazeera, 20 July 2020,, dated accessed 22 July 2020. Ministry of Health, last updated 21 July 2020,

83 Professor Michael Baker, “Coronavirus live Q&A: Epidemiologist professor Michael Baker on how NZ is tracking”, 28 April 2020,­rus-live-qa-epidemiologist-professor-michael-baker-on-how-nz-is-tracking, date accessed 22 July 2020.

84 Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, last reviewed 20 March 2019, New Zealand Parliament, “Centenary of the 1918 Flu Pandemic”, 22 November 2018,­ry-of-the-1918-flu-pandemic/.

85 Professor Jonathan Runstadler, “Influenza’s Wild Origins in the Animals Around Us”, The Conversation, 9 March 2018,­mals-around-us-91058, date accessed 22 July 2020.

86 The vast majority of all transmissible diseases in humans have zoonotic origins, including H5N1 and H7N9 (avian flu), H1N1 (swine flu), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Middle Eastern Respira­tory Syndrome, the Ebola Virus Disease and of course COVID-19. See the World Health Organisation,

87 World Health Organisation,

88 See for examples of New Zealand’s animal biosecurity management, see the Biosecurity New Zea­land website,

89 A phrase coined by Steve Hinchliffe, John Allen, Stephanie Lavau, Nick Bingham and Simon Carter. “Biosecurity and the Topologies of Infected Life: From Borderlines to Borderlands.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 38, no. 4 (2013): 531-543. Absent presences are actions or things that are made invisible or normalised within a narrative, even if they are foundational to its continuation, but they are not made express.

90 Ministry for Primary Industries, December 2019. Department of Conservation, 2016. See also Or­ganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2017.

91 Ibid.