Reframing New Zealand’s Biosecurity Conversation Post-Covid-19: An Argument for Integrating Interspecies Concerns

Author: McDonald, D. A.
Published in National Security Journal, 24 August 2020

34 This word is used in the way that Michel Callon uses it, which is to allow an actor or element of a network (such as a virus or bacterium) to show itself, as opposed to overlaying preconceived ideas about how that actor or element performs in the world. See Michel Callon. “Some Elements of a Sociology of Translation: Domestication of the Scallops and the Fisherman of St Brieuc Bay.” In Power, Action and Belief: A New Sociology of Knowledge?, edited by John Law. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986, pp. 196-233.

35 Steve Hinchliffe. “The Insecurity of Biosecurity: Remaking emerging infectious diseases.” In Bios­ecurity: The Socio-politics of Invasive Species and Infectious Diseases, edited by Andrew Dobson, Kezia Barker and Sarah Taylor. London: Routledge, 2013, pp. 199-214. See also Braun, 2008.

36 Braun, pp. 250-266.

37 For an interesting discussion on biosecurity networks, see Steve Hinchliffe and Nick Bingham. “People, Animals, and Biosecurity in and through Cities.” In Networked Disease: Emerging Infections in the Global City, edited by S. Harris Ali and Roger Keil. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008, pp. 214-228.

38 Ibid.

39 Braun, 2008.

40 See generally the Ministry for Primary Industries’ webpage on mycoplasma bovis for the types of entities involved with the incursion and biosecurity response. Ministry for Primary Industries, last reviewed 15 July 2020,

41 Braun, 2008.

42 Hinchliffe, 2013.

43 Clark, 2013.

44 Braun, 2008, p. 257.

45 Ibid.

46 Kezia Barker, 2013.

47 Hinchliffe, 2013, p. 210.

48 Biosecurity control areas (BCAs) are legally defined areas at ports and airports that allow New Zea­land to exercise biosecurity powers, see section 2 of the Biosecurity Act 1993 for the statutory definition.

49 There has been recent international discussion about the possibility of ‘immunity passports’ post- COVID-19. See for example the WHO’s Scientific Brief, 24 April 2020,­tions/i/item/immunity-passports-in-the-context-of-covid-19.

50 Ministry for Primary Industries, Biosecurity 2025 Direction Statement for New Zealand’s Biosecuri­ty System, (Wellington: Ministry for Primary Industries, 2016), p. 4,­ment/14857-biosecurity-2025-direction-statement-for-new-zealands-biosecurity-system.

51 Ministry for Primary Industries, last reviewed 2 July 2020,

52 Ministry for Primary Industries, Biosecurity 2025 Workplan: Strategic Direction 5 Tomorrow’s skills and assets (Wellington: Ministry for Primary Industries, 2018), p. 11, assets/Resources/8f83c1a57b/Work-plan-Strategic-Direction-5.pdf.

53 Ministry for Primary Industries, Tiakina Aotearoa/Protect New Zealand: The Biosecurity Strategy for New Zealand (Wellington: Ministry for Primary Industries, 2003), p. 5,

54 Vaughan Higgins and Jacqui Dibden. “Biosecurity, Trade Liberalisation, and the (Anti)politics of Risk Analysis: The Australia-New Zealand Apples Dispute.” Environment and Planning A, 43, no. 2 (2011): 393-409.

55 Christine Trampusch. “Protectionism, Obviously, is not Dead: A Case Study on New Zealand’s Bios­ecurity Policy and the Causes-of-Effects of Economic Interests.” Australian Journal of Political Science, 49, no. 2 (2014): 206-220.

56 Ibid, p. 214.

57 David Norton, Laura Young, Andrea Byrom, Bruce Clarkson, Phil Lyver, Matt McGlone and Nick Waipara. “How Do We Restore New Zealand’s Biological Heritage by 2050?” Ecological Management & Restoration, 17, no. 3 (2016): 170–179. Ministry for Primary Industries, 2016. Department of Con­servation, New Zealand Biodiversity Action Plan, (Wellington: Department of Conservation, 2016). In addition, see Ministry for Primary Industries, “Ko Tatou/This is Us”,