Reframing New Zealand’s Biosecurity Conversation Post-Covid-19: An Argument for Integrating Interspecies Concerns

Author: McDonald, D. A.
Published in National Security Journal, 24 August 2020

58 Ministry for Primary Industries, Situation and Outlook for Primary Industries, (Wellington: Ministry for Primary Industries, December 2019),­uation-and-outlook-for-primary-industries-sopi-december-2019. See also Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: New Zealand, (Paris: Secretary-General of the OECD, 2017),­f?expires=1595300771&id=id&accname=ocid177563&checksum=FD6388B0198C11032453B58F1DB­FC546.

59 Ministry for Primary Industries, December 2019.

60 Ibid.

61 Ministry for Primary Industries, Economic Update for the Primary Industries, (Wellington: Ministry for Primary Industries, June 2020),

62 Ibid.

63 Ibid.

64 Ibid.

65 Department of Conservation, 2016. Norton et. al, 2016.

66 Norton et. al, 2016.

67 Radio New Zealand, “Air New Zealand Job Cuts Rushed, Poorly Planned – Union”, 10 April 2020, Amanda Cropp, “Tourism Says Many Jobs Will Go Despite $400M Budget Rescue Package”, Stuff, 14 May 2020,

68 Jason Walls, “Covid-19 Coronavirus: Govt Spending $4.4 Billion Higher than Forecast as Deficits Loom”, NZ Herald, 8 May 2020,­tid=12330506.

69 Trampusch, 2014.

70 Max Towle, “How the Climate is Benefiting from COVID-19”, Radio New Zealand, 24 March 2020, For an alternative view about COVID-19’s impact on the environment, see National Geographic, “Why COVID-19 Will End Up Harming the Environment”, 18 June 2020,

71 Mark McNeill, Tracy Payne and Denise Bewsell. “Tourists as Vectors of Potential Invasive Alien Species and a Strategy to Reduce Risk.” Re-creating Tourism: New Zealand Tourism and Hospital­ity Research Conference (December 2008). Retrieved from See also Ministry for Primary Industries, 2016.

72 Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment,­tion-and-tourism/tourism/tourism-funding/international-visitor-conservation-and-tourism-levy/.

73 Jacques Tassin and Christian Kull. “Facing the Broader Dimensions of Biological Inva­sions.” Land Use Policy, 42 (2015): 165-169, p. 166.

74 See Waitangi Tribunal, Ko Aotearoa Tēnei: Report on the WAI262 Claim (Wellington: Ministry of Justice, 2011),­leased/.

75 Mark Williamson and Alastair Fitter. “The Varying Success of Invaders.” Ecology, 77, no. 6 (1996): 1661 – 1666. The ‘tens-rule’ was established in the northern hemisphere and should be interpreted cau­tiously, although it is instructive in demonstrating that not all imported species are problematic to local biodiversity.

76 Lesley Head and Pat Muir. “Nativeness, Invasiveness, and Nation in Australian Plants.” Geographi­cal Review, 94, no. 2 (2004): 199-217.

77 Franklin Ginn. “Extension, Subversion, Containment: Eco-nationalism and (Post)colonial Nature in Aotearoa New Zealand.” Trans Inst Br Geogr, 33 (2008): 335–353.

78 Elisha Foon, “Spike in Racism During Pandemic, Human Rights Commission Reports”, Radio New Zealand, 3 May 2020, Charlie Dreaver, “National MP’s Comments ‘Disgraceful, Racist’ – Megan Woods”, Radio New Zealand, 2 July 2020,­al-mp-s-comments-disgraceful-racist-megan-woods.