Counterfeiting in the Primary Industry Sector and the Threat to New Zealand’s Economy

Authors: Ball, R. & Quirke, S.
Published in National Security Journal, Volume 1, Issue 1, October 2019

60 Anecdotal data suggests that such efforts would offer significant financial gains to counterfeiters “in the vicinity of millions per month,” Interview transcript, industry representative (name withheld) with authors, 21 June 2017.

61 Dairy Companies Association of New Zealand (2019). Dairy Farming Industry & Milk Production History NZ. Available at: (accessed 20 May 2019); and Dairy NZ (2019). QuickStats about dairying – New Zealand. Available at: (accessed 20 May 2019).

62 Cavin, C., Cottenet, G., Blancpain, C., Bessaire, T., Frank, N. & Zbinden, P. (2016). “Food Adulteration: From Vulnerability Assessment to New Analytical Solutions,” Chimia 70 (2016), pp.329-333.; Moore, J.C., Spink, J. & Lipp, M. (2012). Development and Application of a Database of Food Ingredient Fraud and Economically Motivated Adulteration from 1980 to 2010,” Journal of Food Science, Vol.77, No.4, pp.121-124; and IEC and ISO (2018). Op. Cit., p.17.

63 The chemical compound Melamine is a by-product of the coal industry with numerous industrial uses. It contains high levels of nitrogen and when added to diluted milk gives the appearance of normal protein levels. See Mooney, P. (2008). “The Story Behind China’s Tainted Milk Scandal,” USA News, 9 October 2008. Available at: (accessed 26 June 2019).

64 Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN) (2008). WHO Expert meeting to review toxicological aspects of melamine and cyanuric acid, 1-4 December 2008. Available at: (accessed 23 June 2019).

65 Changbai, X. & Klein, K.K. (2010). “Melamine in milk products in China: examining the factors that led to deliberate use of the contaminant,” Food Policy 35, No.5, p.467.

66 Mooney (2008).

67 According to Xiu and Klein. “Consumption of melamine caused infants to develop kidney stones, which, if left untreated, could cause renal failure and death,” Changbai & Klein (2010), p.463, and Mooney (2008).

68 Changbai & Klein (2010), p.468.

69 Fox (2012).

70 Tajitsu (2014); and Hutching, G. (2017). “Fonterra Chinese Partner Beingmate’s Shares Fall as Asset Sale Imminent,” New Zealand Farmer, 13 July 2017. Available at: (accessed 30 June 2019).

71 Business Farming Rural Reporters (2018). “Fonterra and Beingmate – where did it all go sour?” Stuff, 21 March 2018. Available at:–where-did-it-all-go-sour (accessed 19 June 2019).

72 Hutching, G. (2018). “How Fonterra sold Beingmate to shareholders – and got it wrong,” Stuff, 26 September 2018. Available at:–and-got-it-wrong (accessed 19 June 2019).

73 Cavin et al (2016), Op. Cit., p.332.

74 Elements of the French wine industry also claim that the illicit trade of their product is “impossible to quantify with precision.” Mustacich (2015).

75 Ministry for Primary Industries (2019), Op. Cit., p.16, 38 and 58.