Counterfeiting in the Primary Industry Sector and the Threat to New Zealand’s Economy

Authors: Ball, R. & Quirke, S.
Published in National Security Journal, Volume 1, Issue 1, October 2019


1 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (2018). Tackling Counterfeit with IEC and ISO Standards. Geneva: ISO, p.2.

2 Ministry for Primary Industries (2019). Situation and Outlook for Primary Industries June 2019. Wellington: New Zealand Government, p.4 and p.62.

3 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and European Union Intellectual Property Office (EUIPO) (2019). Trends in Trade in Counterfeit and Pirated Goods, Illicit Trade. Paris: OECD Publishing, p.13.

4 Fox, A. (2012). “Counterfeit Infant Formula Threat,” Waikato Times, 17 March, 2012. Available at: (accessed 12 May 2019).

5 Ibid.

6 See Bhattacharyya, G. (2005). Traffik: The Illicit Movement of People and Things. London: Pluto Press; Cesareo, L. (2016). Counterfeiting and Piracy: A Comprehensive Literature Review. New York: Springer; Chaudhry, P. & Zimmerman, A. (2009). The Economics of Counterfeit Trade: Governments, Consumers, Pirates and Intellectual Property Rights. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; Dupont, A. (2006). Transnational Security. In Ayson, R. & Ball, D. (Eds), Strategy and Security in the Asia-Pacific. Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin; Yi-Chieh, J. L. (2011). Fake Stuff: China and the Rise of Counterfeit Goods. New York: Routledge; Ling Peng, L., Wan, L, C. & Poon, P.S. (2013). Self-Discrepancy and Consumer Responses to Counterfeit Products. In Chan, T.S. & Cui, G. (Eds), Multinationals and Global Consumers: Tension, Potential and Competition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan; Moore, J.C., Spink, J. & Lipp,
M. (2012). “Development and Application of a Database of Food Ingredient Fraud and economically Motivated Adulteration from 1980 to 2010,” Journal of Food Science, Vol.77, No.4, pp.118-126; Staake, T. & Fleisch, E. (2008). Countering Counterfeit Trade: Illicit Markets, Best-Practice Strategies, and Management Toolbox. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; Williams, P. (2013). “Transnational Organized Crime,” in Williams, P.D. (Ed), Security Studies: An Introduction (2nd Edition). Abingdon: Routledge; and Wilson, B. (2008). Swindled: The Dark History of Food Fraud, from Poisoned Candy to Counterfeit Coffee.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.

7 World Trade Organisation (2017). Glossary. Available at: (accessed 20 March 2019).

8 Moore et al (2012), Op. Cit., p.118.

9 Ibid.

10 Spink, J. (2017). “Product fraud and product counterfeiting as a source of terrorist financing,” Security Journal, Vol.30, No.2, Macmillan, p.640.

11 Ministry for Business, Innovation and Enterprise (2017). Parallel Importing, Piracy and Counterfeiting. Available at: (accessed 20 March 2019).

12 Discussion with MBIE Corporate Governance and Intellectual Property Policy advisors and authors, 21 June 2019.

13 Moore et al (2012), Op. Cit., p.123.

14 Crimes Act 1961 and Trade Marks Act 2002