New Zealand’s Counter-terrorism Strategy: A Critical Assessment

Authors: Battersby, J., Ball, R., & Nelson, N.
Published in National Security Journal, 23 June 2020

44 “Ihumātao protest: Video shows protester racially abusing police officer,” Newshub, 7 August 2019. Available at¬tester-racially-abusing-police-officer.html. “Major ruction in Government over Shane Jones’ ‘racist’ Indian remarks,” Newshub, 3 March 2020. Available at

45 John Battersby, “The Ghost of New Zealand’s Terrorism Past and Present,” National Security Journal 1 (2019).

46 John Battersby & Rhys Ball, “Christchurch in the context of New Zealand terrorism and right wing extremism,” Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 14:3 (2019). “SIS accused of breaching NZ Muslims’ rights: It’s ‘unethical, misleading’, says critic, Radio New Zealand. Available at [Name Withheld] Personal Communication with the Author, 6 March 2020.

47 See Battersby & Ball (2019), and Gilbert & Elley (2020), both previously cited above.

48 Keiran Hardy, “Countering right wing extremism: lessons from Germany and Norway,” Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 14:3 (2019).

49 DPMC Paper, Looking Forward – Strengthening New Zealand Against Terrorism and Violent Extremism. ERS-19-SUB-0026, 26 September 2019, p. 11.

50 “Coronavirus: Queues outside Gun City as Kiwis panic-buy firearms amid COVID-19 lockdown,” Newshub, 26 March 2020. Available at

51 “Covid-19 lockdown: Don’t panic-buy, we have enough, supermarkets urge,” Radio New Zealand, 23 March 2020. Available at

52 Wil Hoverd, Personal Communication to John Battersby, 8 May 2020.

53 Protecting crowded places from terror attack,” Line of Defence Magazine, Spring 2017. Available at; Nicholas Dynon, personal communication with John Battersby, 8 May 2020.

54 Anthony A. Braga, Philip J Cook, David M. Kennedy and Mark H. Moore, “The Illegal Supply of Firearms,” Crime and Justice 29 (2002), pp.319-352; Wang-Sheng Lee and Sandy Suardi, “The Australian Firearms Buyback and its Effects on Gun Deaths,” Contemporary Economic Policy 28: (2010) p.76; Wang-Sheng Lee and Sandy Suardi, “The Australian Firearms Buyback and its Effects on Gun Deaths,” Contemporary Economic Policy 28: (2010) p.76; Duncan Chappell, Firearms regulation, violence and the mentally ill: A contemporary Antipodean appraisal,” International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 37 (2014), p.402; Stuart Gilmour, Kittima Wattanakamolkul and Maaya Sugai, “The Effect of the Australian National Firearms Agreement on Suicide and Homicide Mortality, 1978-2015, American Journal of Public Health 2018 108:11, pp.1511-1516; Michael Siegel, “Implications of the Australian Experience With Firearm Regulation For US Gun Policy, American Journal of Public Health, (2018) 108:11, pp.1438-1439; Bradley J. Bartos, Richard McCleary, Lorraine Mazerolle and Kelsy Luengen, “Controlling Gun Violence: Assessing the Impact of Australia’s Gun Buyback Program Using a Synthetic Control Group Experiment,” Prevention Science (2020) 21:1, p.35]

55 “Norway set to ban semi-automatic guns from 2021, 10 years after Utoya shooting,” The Guardian, 27 February 2018. Available at

56 “Trudeau announces Canada is banning assault-style weapons,” 1 May 2020, The Guardian. Avail-able at

57 Alan Stolberg, How Nation States Craft National Security Strategy Documents.

58 David Orrell, The Future of Everything: The Science of Prediction (Toronto: HarperCollins Publishers Ltd, 2007).

59 Dwight Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997) p. 36.

60 John Gearson & Hugo Rosemont, “CONTEST as Strategy: Reassessing Britain’s Counterterrorism Approach,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 38:12 (2015), p.1040.