Outlaw Bikers and Patched Street Gangs: The Nexus Between Violence and Shadow Economy

Author: Bradley, C
Published in National Security Journal, 15 May 2020

64 George Wethern & Vincent Colnett, A Wayward Angel: The Full Story of the Hells Angels, (Lyon Press, 2008), pp.38-41.

65 Bradley, Outlaw Bikers, p. 8, Thomas Barker, Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs as Organized Crime Groups, (Richmond: Eastern Kentucky University, 2014), p.13.

66 Lauchs, Are Outlaws?, p. 293.

67 Quinn and Koch, The nature of criminality p.283.

68 Bill Payne & Peter Quinn, Staunch: Inside the Gangs, (Auckland: Reed Books, 1991), p.57.

69 “Australian biker gang the Comancheros building strength in NZ,” 29 December 2017, Newshub NZ . Available at https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/new-zealand/2017/12/australian-biker-gang-the-comancheros-building-strength-in-nz.html. “Methamphetamine and gun found at Rebels Motorcycle Club’s Christchurch HQ,” Stuff, 14 April 2016. Available at https://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/news/78931631/methamphetamine-and-gun-found-at-rebels-motorcycle-clubs-christchurch-hq “Rebels Motorcycle Club quits Christchurch headquarters”. Stuff June 18, 2016. Stuff Available at https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/crime/81196483/rebels-motorcycle-club-quits-christchurch-headquarters. “Police raid Rebels Motorcycle Club’s temporary base in Christchurch,” Stuff, 22 July 2016. Available at https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/crime/82372644/police-raid-rebels-motorcycle-clubs-temporary-base. “Rebels motorcycle gang shut down with community help,” 17 June 2016, New Zealand Police. “Rebels gang dealt another blow,” 1 September 2011, New Zealand Police. “Cut the head off the snake: Bold plan to combat NZ’s gangs,” 20 May 2018, Newstalk ZB. Available at https://www.newstalkzb.co.nz/news/crime/cut-the-head-off-the-snake-bold-plan-to-combat-nzs-gangs/. “What risk do Comancheros gang members pose to New Zealand?,” 16 March 2018, Newshub. Available at https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/new-zealand/2018/03/what-risk-do-comancheros-gang-members-pose-to-new-zealand.html.

70 Blokland et al, “Outlaw Bikers in the Netherlands: Clubs, Social Criminals Organizations or Gangs?,” in Andy Bain & Mark Lauchs eds, Understanding the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: International Perspectives, (Durham: Carolina Academic Press, 2017), pp.91-114.

71 Blokland et al, Outlaw Bikers, p.109.

72 Mark Lauchs. “Are Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs Organized Crime Groups? An Analysis of the Finks MC,” Deviant Behaviour, (2018), pp.287-300.

73 Mark Lauchs, M & Zoe Staines, “An analysis of outlaw motorcycle gang crime: are bikers organised criminals?,” Global Crime, (2019), pp.69-89.

74 Jarrod Gilbert & Ben Elley, “Shaved heads and sonnenrads: comparative white supremacist skinheads and the alt-right in New Zealand,” Kōtuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Science Online (2020), p.8.

75 Gilbert & Elley, “Shaved Heads,” p.8.

76 Julie Ayling & Roderic Broadbent, “Organized Crime Control in Australia and New Zealand” in Oxford Handbook of Organized Crime, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014), pp. 625, 626.

77 Ayling & Broadbent, Organized Crime, p.627, 629.

78 New Zealand Ministry of Police, 2019.

79 “Simon Bridges defends Strikeforce Raptor war on gangs Plan,” 27 November 2019, Newshub. Available at https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/politics/2019/11/simon-bridges-defends-strike-force-raptor-war-on-gangs-plan.html.

80 Haslett, Riding. See Chapter Six.81 White, Haines & Asquith, Crime, p.76.

82 “NZ street gangs are facing an influx of Australian outlaw bikers,” New Zealand Herald, 8 February 2019. Available at https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=12201583.

83 Blokland et al, Outlaw Bikers, pp.10