Outlaw Bikers and Patched Street Gangs: The Nexus Between Violence and Shadow Economy

Author: Bradley, C
Published in National Security Journal, 15 May 2020


1 Thomas Barker, The Outlaw Biker Legacy of Violence. (New York, Routledge, 2018) pp.23, 24, 27, 31.

2 Gilbert, Patched p.IX.

3 Gilbert, Patched p.IX.

4 Matthew H. Fleming, John Roman & Graham Farrell, “The Shadow Economy,” Journal of International Affairs, (2000), p.387.

5 Fleming et al, p.387.

6 Friedrich Schneider, “Size and Development of the Shadow Economy of 31 European and 5 other OECD Countries from 2003 to 2012: Some New Facts,” 2011. Available at ShadEc31_december 2011.doc

7 www.stats.govt.nz.

8 Fleming et al, p.387.

9 Carl Bradley, “Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs, Organised Crime and National Security” in Wil Hoverd, Nick Nelson & Carl Bradley, eds. New Zealand National Security: Challenges, Trends and Issues. (Palmerston North: Massey University Press, 2017) pp.272-288.

10 Rawiri Taonui & Greg Newbold, “Māori Gangs” in Tracey McIntosh & Malcolm Mulholland, eds. Māori and Social Issues, (Wellington: Huia Publishers, 2011), pp.209, 211. Glenys Dennehy & Greg Newbold, The Girls in the Gang, (Auckland, Reed Publishing 2001), p.161.

11 Gilbert, Patched p. 31. Dennehy & Newbold, Girls, p.165.

12 Taonui & Newbold, “Māori Gangs,” p. 211. Dennehy & Newbold, Girls, p.166.

13 New Zealand Ministry of Police, 2019. “Insight: Future of Gangs,” Radio New Zealand, 10 June

14 “Insight: Future of Gangs,” Radio New Zealand, 10 June 2018.

15 Taonui & Newbold, “Māori Gangs,” p.209.

16 “Insight: Future of Gangs,” Radio New Zealand, 10 June 2018.

17 Taonui & Newbold, “Māori Gangs,” p.210.

18 Roger Hopkins Burke, An Introduction to Criminological Theory, (London, Routledge 2019), p.143.

19 Mark Lauchs, Andy Bain, & Peter Bell, Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs: A Theoretical Perspective. (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan 2015), pp.41, 43, 48.

20 Robert Merton, “Social Structure and Anomie,” American Sociological Review, (1938), pp.672-682. Lauchs et al, p.45. White, Haines & Asquith, Crime, p.84.

21 Merton, Social Structure, p. 676; Hopkin Burke, An Introduction, pp. 146-148; Peter Joyce, Criminology and Crime, (New Zealand: Routledge 2018), pp. 21-22; White, Haines & Asquith, Crime, p. 83.

22 Hopkins Burke, An Introduction, pp.146-148; White, Haines & Asquith, Crime, p. 83. Lauchs et al, p.43.

23 White, Haines & Asquith, Crime, p.83.

24 Hopkins Burke, An Introduction, pp.147; White, Haines & Asquith, Crime, p. 83. Lauchs et al, pp.43-44.

25 Lauchs et al, p. 45,;Taonui & Newbold, “Māori Gangs,” p.209.

26 Robert Agnew, “Foundations of General Strain Theory of Crime and Delinquency,” Criminology, (2000), pp.47-87.

27 Hopkins Burke, An Introduction, p.152.

28 Gilbert, Patched, p. 292, 293. Tuhoe Isaac with Bradford Haami, True Red, The life of an ex-Mongrel Mob Gang Leader, (Pukekohe: True Red, 2007), pp.22, 23, 34.

29 Dennehy & Newbold, Girls, p.68.

30 See Carl Bradley, “Outlaw Bikers, Methamphetamine and Cultural Change,” International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Science Studies, (2018); Lauchs et al. James Quinn and D. Shane Koch, “The nature of criminality within one-percent motorcycle clubs,” Deviant Behaviour 24 (3) (2003).

31 Bradley, Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs, p.275, Barker, The Outlaw Biker; Arthur Veno, The Brotherhoods: Inside the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs, (Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin 2012), p.93.

32 Barker, The Outlaw Biker, p.17.

33 Gilbert, Patched, p.199.

34 Bradley, Outlaw Motorcycle Clubs, p. 275, Daniel Wolf, The Rebels: A Brotherhood of Outlaw Bikers, (Toronto: University of Toronto press 1991), p.25.

35 Veno, The Brotherhoods, pp. 270, 271; Tim Shadbolt, Bullshit and Jellybeans, (Wellington: A. Taylor, 71), p.82.

36 Lauchs et al; Veno, The Brotherhoods, see chapter 9.