Author: Zvedre, Y. K.
Published in National Security Journal, 09 July 2020
22 “Russia’s ASAT development takes aim at LEO assets” by Jane’s Intelligence Review. Available at https://www.janes.com/images/assets/591/81591/Russias_ASAT_development_takes_aim_at_LEO_assets_v2.pdf
23 Christopher Ashley Ford, “Whither Arms Control in Outer Space? Space Threats, Space Hypocrisy, and the Hope of Space Norms,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, 6 April 2020. Available at https://www.state.gov/whither-arms-control-in-outer-space-space-threats-space-hypocrisy-and-the-hope- of-space-norms/
24 “U.S. and Russia Trade Accusation of Space Militarization, to Organize Work Group, ‘South Front’, April 17, 2020. Available at https://southfront.org/u-s-and-russia-trade-accusation-of-space-militarization-to-organize-work-group/
25 1. Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies – entered into force on 10 October 1967;
2. Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space – entered into force on 3 December 1968;
3. Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects – entered into force on 1 Sept 1972;
4. Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space – entered into force on 15 September 1976;
5. Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies – entered into force on 11 July 1984.
26 Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, adopted on 13 December 1963, Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for International Direct Television; Broadcasting, adopted on 10 December 1982; Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth from Outer Space, adopted on 3 December 1986, Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space, adopted on 14 December 1992, Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries, adopted on 13 December 1996.
27 UN OFFICE FOR OUTER SPACE AFFAIRS. “International Space Law: United Nations Instruments”. Available at https://www.unoosa.org/res/oosadoc/data/documents/2017/stspace/ stspace61rev_2_0_html/V1605998-ENGLISH.pdf, pp.45-47.
28 UN OFFICE FOR OUTER SPACE AFFAIRS. “International Space Law: United Nations Instruments”. Available at https://www.unoosa.org/res/oosadoc/data/documents/2017/stspace/stspace- 61rev_2_0_html/V1605998-ENGLISH.pdf, p.5
29 “TREATY BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE UNION 0F SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS ON THE LIMITA TION OF ANTI-BALLISTIC MIS- SILE SYSTEMS”. Available at https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/Volume%20944/ volume-944-I-13446-English.pdf
30 For example, the Treaty did not outlaw systems designed to deliver WMD into Earth’s orbit, thus, allowing the Soviet FOB system in its developmental phase not to be formally considered as a violation of the Treaty regime as long as it was not equipped with a nuclear warhead.
31 “Conference on Disarmament Documents related to Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space”. Available at https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/G08/604/02/PDF/G0860402.pdf?
32 “Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space, the Threat or Use of Force against Outer Space Objects(Draft),” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Re- public of China, 16 June 2014. Available at https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/wjb_663304/zzjg_663340/jks_665232/kjfywj_665252/t1165762.shtml
33 “U.S. Dismisses Space Weapons Treaty Proposal As “Fundamentally Flawed”,” Space News, 11 September 2014. Available at https://spacenews.com/41842us-dismisses-space-weapons-treaty-proposal-as-fundamentally-flawed/
34 “Statement by Ambassador Wood: The Threats Posed by Russia and China to Security of the Outer Space Environment,” US Mission to International Organizations in Geneva, 14
August 2019. Available at https://geneva.usmission.gov/2019/08/14/statement-by-ambassador-wood-the-threats-posed-by-russia-and-china-to-security-of-the-outer-space-environment/
35 “Draft International Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities: Fact Sheet,” Secure World Foundation, February 2014. Available at https://swfound.org/media/166384/swf_draft_international_code_of_conduct_for_outer_space_activities_fact_sheet_february_2014.pdf
36 Christopher Ashley Ford, “Whither Arms Control in Outer Space? Space Threats, Space Hypocrisy, and the Hope of Space Norms,” Center for Strategic and International Studies, 6 April 2020. Available at https://www.state.gov/whither-arms-control-in-outer-space-space-threats-space-hypocrisy-and-the-hope- of-space-norms