Assessing Terrorism Threats to New Zealand: The Role of the Combined Threat Assessment Group

Author/s: Combined Threat Assessment Group (CTAG)
Published in National Security Journal, 27 November 2020


1 Kerr, D., & Manch, T. (2020). Counter-terror investigation into soldier. The Dominion Post. 1 February 2020.

2 Singer, D. (1958). Threat-Perception and the Armament-Tension Dilemma. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2 (1), 90-105.

3 Borum, R., Fein, R., Vossekuil, B., & Berglund, J. (1999). Behavioural Sciences and the Law, 17, 323-337;

also see:

Campbell, J. C., Glass, N. E., Sharps, P. W., Laughon, K., & Bloom, T. (2007) Intimate Partner Homicide: Review and Implications for Research and Policy. Violence, Trauma and Abuse, 8, 246-269;

Cole, J., Alison, E., Cole, B., Alison, L. (2009). Guidance for Identifying People Vulnerable to Recruitment into Violent Extremism. University of Liverpool: School of Psychology.

Davis, P. K., Perry, W. J., Hollywood, J. S., & Manheim, D. (2016). Uncertainty-Sensitive Heterogenous Information Fusion: Assessing Threat with Soft, Uncertain, and Conflicting Evidence. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

Fein, R., Vossekuil, B., (2000). Protective Intelligence and Threat Assessment Investigations: A Guide for Local Law Enforcement Officials. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Justice;

Harding, D. (2014). Threat Management: The Coordinated Focus on the Threat Actor, their Intentions, and Attack Cycle. Journal of Applied Security Research, 9, 478-494.

James, D. V., Kerrigan, T., Forfar, R., Farnham, F., & Preston, L. (2010). The Fixated Threat Assessment Centre: preventing harm and facilitating care. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 21, 521-536.

Koҫak, M. (2012). Threat Assessment of Terrorist Organisations: the Application of Q Methodology. Journal of Risk Research, 15 (1), 85-105;

Malone, R. (2015). Protective Intelligence: Applying the Intelligence Cycle Model to Threat Assessment. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 2 (1), 53-62.

McKenna, B. G., Poole, S. J., Smith, N. A., Coverdale, J. H., & Gale, C. K. (2003) A survey of threats and violent behaviour by patients against registered nurses in their first year of practice. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 12, 56-63.

Meloy, J. R., Roshdi, K., Glaz-Ocik, J., & Hoffman, J. (2015). Investigating the Individual Terrorist in Europe. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 2 (3), 140-152.

Meloy, J. R., Hoffman, J., Roshdi, K. & Guldimann, A. (2014). Some Warning Behaviours discriminate between school shooters and other students of concern. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 1(3), 203-211.

Meloy, J. R., Hoffman, H., Guldimann, A., & James, D. (2012). The Role of Warning Behaviours in Threat Assessment: An Exploration and Suggested Typology. Behavioural Sciences and the Law, 30, 256-279;

Reddy., M., Borum, R., Berglund, J., Vossekuil, B., Fein, R., & Modzeleski, W. (2001). Evaluating Risk for Targeted Violence in Schools: Comparing Risk Assessment, Threat Assessment, and Other Approaches. Psychology in Schools, 38(2), 157-170;

Tusikov, N., Fahlman, R. (2008). Threat and Risk Assessments. In Ratcliffe, J (ed.). Strategic Thinking in Criminal Intelligence (2nd edition). The Federation Press, NSW: Leichhardt.

Vandepeer, C. (2011a). Rethinking Threat: Intelligence Analysis, Intentions, Capabilities, and the Challenge of Non State Actors. (Doctoral Dissertation, University of Adelaide: School of History and Politics, Australia).