In Search of a Legal Solution to the Weaponisation of Space: A Russian Perspective

Author: Zvedre, Y. K.
Published in National Security Journal, 09 July 2020


1 ‘The Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation’, 29 June 2015, The Embassy of the Russian Federation to the Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Available at:

2 ‘Bold Orion’ Weapons System 199 (WS-199B)’, n.d. Available at

3 Information on the Soviet/Russian IS program available at

4 Braxton Brick Eisel, “The FOBS of War,” AIRFORCE Magazine, 1 June 2005. Available at

5 “The Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms and Associated Documents.” Available at

6 Matthew Mowthorpe, The Militarization and Weaponization of Space, (Washington DC, Lexington, 2004), pp.111-112.

7 Laura Grego, “A History of Anti-Satellite Programs,” Union of Concerned Scientists. January 2012. Available at

8 Ibid.

9 Geoffrey Forden, “After China’s Test: Time For a Limited Ban on Anti-Satellite Weapons,” Arms Control Association, n.d. Available at

10 Kelsey Davenport, “Indian ASAT test raises space risks,” Arms Control Association, May 2019. Available at

11 Andrew Korybko, “Russia’s Response to India’s ASAT Missile Test Wasn’t What New Delhi Expected,” Global Search, April 1, 2019. Available at russias-response-to-indias-asat-missile-test-wasnt-what-new-delhi-expected/5673254

12 “National Space Policy of the United States of America,” released on 6 October 2006. Available at national/us- space-policy_060831.pdf

13 “National Space Policy of the United States of America,” released on 28 June 2010. Avail- able at space/library/policy/national/100628_national_space_policy.pdf

14 “National Security Strategy of the United States of America”, issued on December 18, 2017. Available at nal-12-18-2017-0905.pdf

15 “President Donald J. Trump is Launching America’s Space Force,” White House Fact Sheet, 23 October 2018. Available at

16 “Trump signs defense bill establishing U.S. Space Force: What comes next” by Sandra Erwin. “Space News”, December 20, 2019. Available at defense-bill-establishing-u-s-space-force-what-comes-next/

17 In the US Air Force vocabulary, counterspace is a mission, like counterair, that integrates offensive and defensive operations to attain and maintain the desired control and protection in and through outer space.

18 “Challenges to Security in Space,” [US] Defense Intelligence Agency, 2019. Available at

19 “Putin urges greater attention to strengthening orbital group of satellites,” TASS, 5 December 2019. Available at

20 “Foreign Ministers take decisions to adapt NATO, recognize space as an operational domain,” NATO, 20 November 2019. Available at

21 “U.S. Space Command blasts Russia for anti-satellite missile test,” Space News, 15 April 2020. Available at